Autismus (Journals Book 1)

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Contents

  1. Child & School Psychology
  2. Thieme E-Journals - Fortschritte der Neurologie · Psychiatrie / Abstract
  3. Autism research: standing on the shoulders of giants

Rimland also helped establish the Autism Society of America, an organization whose mission included informing parents about the benefits of behavioral therapy. In addition, he had much respect for Temple Grandin and learned from her personal experiences dealing with sensory issues. For my part, I had been incredibly fortunate to work with many leaders in the autism field. Lovaas sponsored my undergraduate honors thesis, which was later published. In my thesis, I hypothesized a relationship between biology and behavior.

Child & School Psychology

I also learned a great deal about sensory processing from Temple Grandin, who I had known since our days together in graduate school, and was mentored by several pioneers in sensory processing including Lorna Jean King vestibular, deep pressure , Guy Berard hearing , and Melvin Kaplan vision. During this time, I published some of the early autism research on hearing, vision, and deep pressure. Starting in the mids, Dr.

Rimland and I worked closely together to raise awareness of the biomedical perspective. Along with volunteers and contractors, we organized annual and semi-annual conferences published five editions of a book on biomedical treatment approaches and edited a book of success stories, in which six chapters were written by parents or grandparents who were also medical doctors. In addition, we posted online articles and videos, organized one to two think tanks a year, coordinated an active discussion group for scientists and physicians, and lectured on the biomedical perspective worldwide.

In this way, integrating all three areas could spark a vibrant catalytic synergistic approach to understanding autism. Such a perspective could energize and expedite research on the underlying causes of autism and the most effective interventions. The ATEC was one of the first, if not the first, multidisciplinary assessment tools for autism. More than , parents and professionals have completed the ATEC. The checklist is available for no charge online and has been translated into 20 different languages.

We began funding more cutting-edge exploratory research. We also began to offer online webinars for parents and professionals, which led to producing continuing medical education webcasts specifically developed for physicians.

Thieme E-Journals - Fortschritte der Neurologie · Psychiatrie / Abstract

In addition, we have written numerous articles and editorials, edited books, and lectured on all three areas of research worldwide. The image of a puzzle is often used to represent the many components of autism. Our goal is to put more pieces on the table and then to fit them together, either tightly or loosely. What makes this task so challenging is that many of these pieces belong to more than one picture because autism is a broad term that encompasses multiple subtypes.

We are very hopeful that our current research into subtyping, an effort that builds and expands on decades of work done by giants in the field such as Dr. Rimland, will empower us to determine which pieces belong to which puzzles. As a result, we will be able to identify the most promising treatments and research avenues for each individual subtype—a breakthrough that we believe will once again revolutionize the field of autism.

These studies include novel techniques such as the eye-tracking laboratories co-directed with Warren Jones, which allow researchers to see the world through the eyes of individuals with autism. These techniques are now being applied in the screening of toddlers at risk for autism.

He is the author of over publications in the field of autism and related conditions. He trained as a clinical psychologist at Edinburgh University before completing a PhD on self-injurious behaviour in people with intellectual disability at the Institute of Psychiatry, London. He is currently researching early intervention, behaviour disorders in people with severe intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder, behavioural, cognitive and emotional phenotypes in genetic syndromes and neuropsychological and behavioural assessment for people with severe intellectual disability.

He has published over peer reviewed articles in scientific journals, was previously Editor in Chief for the Journal of Intellectual Disability Research and serves on a number of scientific advisory committees for autism and syndrome support groups. He works in an adapted environment facility ESAT where he has held several positions, including maintenance of gardens and premises. He lives independently in his apartment in Antibes, near Nice, with the help of a home service.

On weekends he goes for walks, visits the surroundings, and goes to cultural events. He particularly likes to travel during his holidays. Camille Ribeyrol is an year-old young autistic woman who pursues an inclusive path, despite the need for intensive help and adaptation of the environment, to overcome her sensory difficulties. She lives in the west of France with her family.

She was able to go to school in special classes ULIS with an individual school assistant and has been doing internships in companies in recent years. She is non-verbal and uses alternative means of communication. She enjoys traveling, going out with her family, and having a job that makes sense. Herbert Roeyers is professor of clinical psychology on the domain of developmental disorders at Ghent University, Belgium since His main research interest is the investigation of early social-communicative development in children with autism and the clinical application of this work via screening, diagnostic and early intervention studies.

He was the main supervisor of 25 completed doctoral dissertations. He is co- author of more than publications in international peer-reviewed journals. He has 30 years of experience with social scientific studies of disability. Most of his research is in the intersection between policy and research, addressing issues such as policy reforms, community care, employment, education and living conditions. He has served on several Norwegian public policy committees on disability policies and has been the Chair of the Norwegian Council for Disabled People.

Worked with people with ASD and their families for more than 30 years. Peter wrote more than 15 books, translated into many languages, and several articles on autism.


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The mission of this association is to improve the living conditions of people with autism with a focus on raising awareness of autism, particularly in schools and in universities. They also work on various themes with a variety other audiences companies, conferences, etc. Their objective is to raise awareness among the general public through clear and accessible explanations, and encouraging people to be more tolerant towards autistic people.

Tristan has participated in several working committees with different public authorities.

Autism research: standing on the shoulders of giants

He is also the older brother of two teenagers with autism, with different profiles and needs. This life experience gives him a "panoramic" view to understanding of autism. In addition, he is also a landscape gardener and works part-time in a Montessori school. The third major influence on Uta's thinking was Maggie Snowling, who started her graduate studies at the Cognitive Development Unit in This gave Maggie experience of assessing and teaching children with severe and selective reading difficulties, who provided ample evidence of the importance of phonological processing problems in leading to literacy impairments.

Her thesis studies built on the foundations set by the original Hermelin and O'Connor work: carefully designed small-scale studies in which performance of a disordered group was compared with that of younger children matched on performance on a key measure—in this case, reading level. This led to one of the earliest demonstrations that dyslexic children were poor even relative to reading-age matched controls on tasks involving phonological processing, even when no written language was involved Snowling, One of the things that made John Morton a remarkable director of the Cognitive Development Unit was the fact that he did not start out as a developmental psychologist: his background was in mainstream experimental psychology.

The influence of this background, with its insistence on articulation of a clear theoretical framework, had a marked impact on his colleagues and students at the Unit. It also meant that John continued to move easily between the worlds of adult and child psychology, and encouraged interactions between the two domains. Thus it came to pass that Uta found herself participating in a meeting on Surface Dyslexia, a topic of considerable interest to neuropsychologists working on acquired dyslexias, which generated a book in which she was encouraged to lay out a theoretical position specifying how developmental dyslexia related to normal stages of reading development Frith, This contrasted with models of reading development adapted from adult neuropsychology that attempted to describe possible processes causing change in behaviour.

The model led to increasing international recognition of her work on reading, with an invitation to participate in a meeting of the prestigious Orton Society Frith, For the next few years, work on dyslexia took a back seat, as Uta again turned to concentrate on autism, where such remarkable progress was being made. However, the advent of brain imaging led to an opportunity to work on one of the first PET studies of dyslexia, in collaboration with Eraldo Paulesu, an Italian neurologist who was working at the Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology with Chris Frith.

The crucial insight that stimulated these studies was that dyslexia was not just a childhood disorder: it persisted into adulthood, with residual signs being detectable even in those who appeared to have compensated for their difficulties. Maggie Snowling's long-term follow-ups of cases she had seen in childhood emphasized this point, and with her help it was possible to recruit adults who had been studied as dyslexic children.

They showed a distinctive pattern of brain activation during phonological tasks, in which the normal connectivity between posterior and anterior areas appeared to be abolished Paulesu et al. Two other lines of work were started in the late s: high-risk and crosslinguistic studies. The high-risk study, done in collaboration with Alison Gallagher and Maggie Snowling, capitalized on the evidence that dyslexia was a strongly genetic disorder, by selecting 3-year-olds whose parents had dyslexia, so that they could be studied before they were introduced to reading.

Maggie Snowling tells us more about the later phases of this study in her chapter in this volume Snowling, Cross-linguistic studies provide a particularly rich testbed for theories of reading disability, because they enable one to test predictions about the manifestations of dyslexia in languages that have different relationships between orthography and phonology. One set of studies arose from Uta's collaborations with Heinz Wimmer. Originally, they had worked together on Theory of Mind, but Wimmer was looking for something new, and comparisons of reading development in German and English was a topic that had not previously been adequately addressed.

There followed a series of studies by Wimmer and his colleague Karin Landerl that emphasized the dangers of relying solely on one language, English, when developing a theory of dyslexia. The other opportunity for cross-linguistic study arose from the collaboration with Eraldo Paulesu.

Uta was able to obtain EU funds for a PET study of dyslexia in English, French, and Italian, three languages that contrasted considerably in the regularity of their orthography. This showed that, despite different levels of behavioural impairment, reduced activity in the same region of the left hemisphere was seen in dyslexics from all three countries. As the title of the paper aptly put it, there appeared to be a biological unity underlying the cultural diversity due to different orthographies Paulesu et al.

These same participants continue to be studied using new methods of imaging, with a recent voxel-based morphometry, finding altered density of grey and white matter of specific left hemisphere regions, and altered connectivity between regions Silani et al. The work on dyslexia nicely illustrates how Uta has succeeded in integrating different levels of explanation—neurobiological, cognitive, and behavioural—in her model of this disorder. Her theoretical approach has sharpened our thinking about causal pathways, and to recognize that we will only gain a full understanding if we take a cognitive neurobiological perspective Frith, Uta describes herself as someone whose early academic career was characterized by enormous good fortune: first, the fact that, by chance, she found herself at one of the few universities in Germany that taught experimental psychology and provided her with the opportunity to attend lectures in a subject far removed from her major discipline; second, her arrival at the IOP at a time when it was alive with iconoclastic young scientists who favoured empiricism and neurobiology over traditional psychoanalytic approaches; third, the chance drop-out of a potential student that allowed her to obtain a diploma in clinical psychology; and, fourth, the sequence of events that led her to be taken on as a PhD student by Hermelin and O'Connor, whose unique experimental approach was combined with a remarkable generosity of spirit towards their new student.

The marital and academic partnership with Chris Frith has been the strongest formative influence on Uta's career and would never have happened had she not crept away from her art history lectures to find out what this psychology stuff was all about. It is intriguing to wonder what Uta would be doing now had any one of these events not occurred. One thing that is certain, however, is that Uta's success is not due simply to serendipity.

What is the scientific rationale behind using stem cells to treat autism?

She benefited from the opportunities provided because she matched them with her keen scientific interest and a talent for social communication that made her an excellent student, supervisor, and collaborator. For Uta, a theory was an important step in the process of hypothesis formation, and the goal was to test it rigorously rather than to shore it up at all costs.

Her talent for devising simple, child-friendly experiments that cut to the heart of a question remains unsurpassed. Uta was indeed fortunate to have regular contact with so many talented and original academic influences, but she must also be credited for being someone who could extract the maximum from these, being ready to listen, debate, and learn wherever new ideas were being discussed.

As well as the many distinguished academics whom she credits with influencing her work, she also pays tribute to the parents of children with autism and dyslexia, whose insights into their children's cognition have provided a rich source of ideas. This chapter has barely been able to scratch the surface concerning Uta's own work and the formative influences on it. In the remainder of this book we will hear from her students and collaborators, who will amply demonstrate the important influence she has had on subsequent generations of researchers.